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Submissions should be made electronically through this website.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay the processing of your submission.
All word limits include referencing and citations.
The below information will be provided during the submission, and is therefore not required within the manuscript file:
Author names must include a forename and a surname. Forenames should preferably not include only initials.
The affiliation should ideally include Department, Institution, City and Country, however only the Institution and Country are mandatory.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified as separate from the main text.
A list of up to six keywords may be placed below the abstract (optional).
The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject to gain an understanding of the article and a background to the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research being presented.
Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS Word’s ‘Style’ section.
If data, structured methods or code used in the research project have been made openly available, a statement should be added to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximising the impact of your open data.
If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.
The journal's data policy is available on the Editorial Policies page.
Any acknowledgements must be headed as such and placed in a separate paragraph after the main text but before the reference list.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here.
Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material or human data must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, the studies must have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subjects should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian).
Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
Foreign concepts, proper nouns, names of institutions etc.
If the article discusses foreign institutions or businesses, the original name should be provided in parentheses.
Names of foreign institutions and businesses should be presented in roman type and capitalised according to English usage; for example, Ministry of Finance (Ministerio de Hacienda), Women’s League to Purify Tokyo City Politics (Tōkyō Fujin Shisei Jōka Renmei). Foreign terms and phrases should be set in italics and followed by an English translation enclosed in parentheses; for example, mottainai (wastefulness).
Foreign proper nouns should not be italicised.
For the submission title:
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
Headings within the main text:
First-level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise the first letter and proper nouns.
Headings should contain fewer than 75 characters.
Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). For instance, you may use a serial comma or not.
The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process.
Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.
The use of bold or italicised text to emphasise a point is permitted, although it should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise its impact.
Use bullet points to denote a list without a hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
Use single quotation marks except where there is a quotation within a quotation, in which case double quotation marks should be used.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.
Standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation from where the quote has been sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance of use. Examples of these can be found here.
Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.
Common examples from Latin do not follow this rule, should be lower case and can include full stops.
Use of footnotes/endnotes
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.
Notes should be used only where crucial, clarifying information needs to be conveyed.
Avoid using notes for the purposes of referencing; use in-text citations instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Please insert the endnote marker after the closing punctuation.
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or an explanatory definition is included on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
For guidelines on hyphenation, please refer to an authoritative style guide, such as The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) (US English) or Oxford’s New Hart’s Rules (UK English). Be consistent in your style of hyphenation.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence; em dashes can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or numbers to represent large whole numbers (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then a figure must be used.
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
For numbers that are less than one a ‘0’ must precede the decimal point.
Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way it will appear in the publication.
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask the author to re-render or omit it.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure. A short additional figure legend may be used to offer a further description.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).
If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica or Verdana. This will ensure that it matches the typeset text.
NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG and EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai or .eps).
Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.
Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.
All tables must be cited within the main text and numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
NOTE: If there are more columns than can be fitted on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still cannot be fitted horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used.
If the author is already mentioned in the main text then the year should follow the name within parentheses.
If the author's name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parentheses, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semicolon and follow alphabetical order.
If three or fewer authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If four or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author's name.
If multipe sources are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.
If specific pages are cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.
For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.
Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.
All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames.
All reading materials should be included in ‘References’ – works which have not been cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in endnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
NOTE: DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.
This journal uses the Harvard system – see below for examples of how to format:
Author, A A Year Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Adam, D J 1984 Stakeholder Analysis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silverman, D F and Propp, K K (eds.) 1990 The Active Interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Achebe, C 1995 Colonialist Criticism. In: Ashcroft, B et al The Post Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge. pp. 57–61.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
Author, A Year Title. Journal name, vol(issue): page. DOI
Martin, L 2010 Bombs, Bodies and Biopolitics: Securitizing the Subject at Airport Security. Social and Cultural Geography, 11(1): 17-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360903414585
NOTE: Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.
Author, A Year Title. Newspaper, date of publication, page.
Tate, P 2007 Illicit Organ Trade Increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June, p. 3.
Author, A Year Title. Newspaper, date of publication, [URL and last accessed date].
Patel, S S 2005 Climate; In a Marsh, Sifting the Past And Seeing the Future. The New York Times, 6 November [online access at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EEDF173EF935A35752C1A9639C8B63 last accessed 28 April 2014].
Author, A Year Title of chaper. In: Title of conference proceedings, location, date, pp. page.
Lynch, M 2003 Dialogue in an Age of Terror. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA on 18 August 2003, pp. 4-7.
Author group Year Title. Place of publication: Publisher
World Health Organization 2010 The World Health Report – Health Systems Financing: The Path to Universal Coverage. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Author, A Year Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), institution.
Yudis, A 2004 Failed Responsibility of the Media in the War on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Manchester.
Author, A Year Title, date of publication. Available at URL [Last accessed date month year].
Pascual, Amb. C 2005 Stabilization and Reconstruction: Building Peace in a Hostile Environment. Prepared Statement to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 16 June 2005. Available at http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/crs/rls/rm/48644.htm [Last accessed 14 August 2012].
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
The publication of this journal is financially supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (grant number277-53-006) and no publication fees are being charged to the authors.